The Eustachian tube, opening to the both sides of the back of the nasal cavities, provides the equalization of the pressure in the middle ear with the pressure of the outer environment and middle ear ventilation.
As a result of functional disorders of the eustachian tube due to various reasons, when the ventilation of the middle air fails the air in the middle ear is absorbed by the mucosa lining the middle ear and mastoid cellules (air cells in the ear bone) and a negative pressure is formed.
Short duration of the functional disorder leads to the accumulation of the fluid which comes from the mucosal soft tissues, in the cavity of the middle ear (serous otitis media) due to the produced negative pressure. If the problem becomes chronic, then the viscosity of the accumulated fluid increases due to increased mucous secretory glands (secretory otitis media). In addition, withdrawal of the tympanum into the middle ear due to negative pressure may result in collapsing of the membrane and adhesion of the eardrum to the auditory bones that are found in the middle ear and to the base of the middle ear (Adhesive otitis).
The conductive hearing loss forming from the beginning of serous otitis especially has a negative effect in the speech and mental development in children during their period of development. If these complications are not noticed in time and corrected, they may lead to permanent hearing loss or severe chronic otitis media.
In order to prevent the formation of negative pressure in the middle ear of the patients who can not yield a positive improvement in the negative pressure formation and fluid accumulation in the middle ear despite medical treatments applied with the appropriate content with the appropriate duration, a temporary hole should be opened in the eardrum surgically and the air should be taken from the external environment. These surgically opened holes usually heal and close within 7-10 days and in cases in which this period is not sufficient for the recovery of the disease in the mucosa, the problem recurs.